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Environment and Earth Sciences COURSE DESCRIPTION
Objectives of the department:
1.Contributing in solving the environmental problems.
2.Providing the society with the specialists in this field.
3.Contributing in establishing environmental culture.
4.Improving, developing & protecting the environment.
5.Providing the area with geological & environmental studies.
6.Holding training courses in the environmental fields.
7.Finding ways for sustainable use of the natural resources.
8.Supporting the environmental and geological researches
9.Raising the public awareness.
10.Studies on natural wealth in Palestine.
Environmental and geological Problems in Palestine
1.Air pollution
2.Ground water pollution.
3.Coastal & sea water pollution.
4.Soil salination.
5.Soil degradation.
6.Possible radioactive hazards.
8.Coastal degradation.
9.Water storage & salination.
Courses & Requirements:
          The student must finish; 143 credit hours and 2 uncredit hours to be granted the degree of B.Sc. in Environment & Earth Sciences. These include:
          University Requirements: 37 credit hours and 2 uncridit hours.
          Faculty requirements: 35 credit hours.
          Department requirements: 71 credit hours.
The department requirements are:
          Ecology, pollution control, Solid waste management, Marine sciences, Soil sciences, Biological statistics, Energy resources, Environmental impact assessment, Waste water treatment, Environmental Microbiology, Hydrogeology, Crystallography & Mineralogy, Optical mineralogy, Petrology, Stratigraphy, Geophysics, Photogeology & Remote sensing, Geology & Environment of Palestine, Field geology, Structural geology, Analytical chemistry, and Instrumental Analysis, siminar.
Academic Staff:
          The academic staff of the department comprises of 5 Ph.D. holders, and 2 Msc.working as lecturers, 3 B.Sc., working as demonstrators.
          The department makes use of the instruments and equipment in the other departments.
However more sophisticated instruments is needed in the near future, e.g. Atomic Absorption; X-Ray diffractometer & SEM.
1. Acceptance and Admission
Student admission into the department of Environment & Earth Sciences is held once a year, usually at the beginning of the academic year. The student must pass successfully the first level in the faculty of Science with outstanding potentialities in an environmental & earth sciences introduction. The applicant should fill a form of specialization in Environment & earth sciences and then forward it to the head of the department of Environment & earth sciences to be granted. Limitation is based on the number of students accepted and their accumulative grades particularly in Environment and Earth Sciences introduction.
2.                  Registration
   At the commence of each semester students should fill a registration card. The number of credit hours (Cr. hr.) allowed to be registered per semester should not exceed 20 Cr. hr. and not to be less than 13 Cr. hr. The only exception is the final-year student who can regist 22 Cr. hr. or less than 13 Cr. hr. Student’s registration will be granted after his/her payment for the number of hours he/she has registed for.     
3. The Academic Year
 The academic year comprises two full semesters. Each semester comprises 14 weeks of teaching followed by two weeks of examinations. Unlike some departments, Environment & earth sciences department does not offer a summer semester.
4. Plan for the Bachelor Degree in Environment & Earth sciences:
To obtain a bachelor degree in environment & earth sciences, Students must complete 143 credit hours. This comprises: the university requirements (37 Cr. hr &2 uncredit hours) the faculty of science requirements (35 Cr. hr) and the Environment & Earth sciences department requirements (71 Cr. hr). The Environment & Earth sciences department requirements (71 Cr. hr) are distributed over eight semesters, four-year plan. Both first & second semesters contain 4 credit hours and each of the remaining semesters includes 10-13 Cr. hr.
5.  Examinations & Grading
Examination of each course is usually held twice per semester: the mid-term examination which is usually performed at the end of the seventh week from the commence of the semester and the final examination which is held at the end of the semester. The practical examination is held once usually at the end of the semester. Grades are distributed in each course as follows:
A. Courses that Include Theory and Laboratory:
Midterm examination       15%
Laboratory examination   25%
Final examination             60%
B. Courses that Include Theory Only:
Midterm examination       30%
Final examination             70%
The minimum passing mark in each course is 60%. For purposes of calculating the semester and cumulative averages, the following grading scale is adopted: 90-100 excellent, 80-89 very good, 70-79 good, 60-69 pass and below 60 fail.
6. Warning & Withdrawal
A student who fails to maintain a cumulative average of 65% in any semester (except the first semester at the faculty of science) should be warned to improve his/her academic performance by raising his/her cumulative average. If the student fails to do so for three successive semesters, his/her study at Environment & Earth sciences department will then be terminated and the student can transfer to other department(or even to other faculty) according to his/her curriculum.
7. Students Transfer
Students are allowed to transfer from other departments to the department of Environment & Earth sciences in accordance with the following requirements:
a. student’s average of not less than 70% in Environment & Earth sciences course.
b. head Environment & earth sciences department approval.
Upon acceptance, courses in which the student pass are transfered according to the Environment & Earth sciences department curriculum.

University that award the degree
Ain Shams, Egypt.
- Micropaleontology
-                     Biostratigraphy 
-                     & paleoecology      
Assistant professor
Dr. Salah A.A.Bahr
Manchester University, United Kingdom
Assistant professor
prof. Mohammad R. Agha
Kassel University, Germany.
Assistant professor
prof. Samir A. Afifi
The university, of Jordan.
Dr. Ziad H . Abu heen*
The university, of Jordan.
Soil Science & water
Mr. Ali A. Tarshawi
Water resources managment
Mr. raed M khaldi
King A.Aziz University, Saudia Arabia
Teaching Assistant
Mr. Samir M. A. Hararah
The Islamic University, Gaza, palestine
Teaching Assistant
Mr. Mazen F. Albanna
1- Introduction to Earth Science & Environment, GEOL 1302 3 Credit Hours
An Introduction to Earth Sciences and Environment Geol. 1302.
This course includes the following:-
1.Identification of Geology.
2.History of the evolution of geology.
3.Earth & Universe.
4.Components of Earth Crust.
5.Internal processes: Earthquakes, Volcanoes and plate Tectonics.
6.Surface processes : Weathering , Erosion, and climate.
7.General view on Earth history (introduction to Historical geology)
8.General view on Environmental Geology.
2-Introduction to Earth Science & Environment
(Practical) , Geol. 1101              3Credit Hours
Identification of crystal systems and some forms belong to them, Identification of hand specimens of some important minerals and rocks.
Training on contour and geologic maps including some Environmental Problems .
3- Ecology ENVT, 2202                               2Credit Hours
          This Course includes the Ecology and Environment concept and its fields, Ecology of Biotic Communities, Natural Ecosystems, Ecological factors, and Biogeochemical Cycles of elements.
4- Analytical Chemistry, CHEM 2310           3Credit Hours
          This course is designed for students majoring in chemistry and fields related to chemistry. It covers the fundamental concepts of analytical chemistry, general concepts of chemical equilibria, acid-base equilibria. It provides the principles of gravimetric and volumetric analysis, acid-base titration, precipitation and coplexometric titration, reduction-oxidation titration, poterntiometry, and electrolytic methods of analysis.
5- Crystallography & Mineralogy, GEOL 2210                 2 Credit Hours
*Crystallography (First half of semester)
It includes an introduction to crystallography, internal & external characters of crystals, Elements of symmetry, classification of crystals into the different systems &classes and finally the different methods to draw the crystals with focusing on the stereographic projection of crystals.
* Mineralogy (second half of semester)
It includes: The study of physical properties of Minerals, the different classifications of minerals with focusing of the Chemical classification and finally the study of common Minerals, their uses and their geographic
5- Crystallography & Mineralogy lab. GEOL 2110           1 Credit Hours
The practical program includes the study of the different systems of crystals (Holosymmetric Classes) and their common crystal forms focusing on their stereogrphic projections. also the identification of common minerals (physical, chemical & crystallographic characters).
6- Environmental Microbiology, ENVT 2212          2Credit
    Introduction to microbiology, the major groups of micro- organisms, viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and algae , reproduction, growth dynamics, role of micro- organisms in the ecological processes, and biochemical cycle.
6- Environmental Microbiology lab., ENVT 2112             1Credit   
Practical include isolation and identification of some of these organisms and its environmental significance.
7- Practical Analytical Chemistry, CHEM 2110     one Credit Hours
This course concentrates on some basic practical methods used in chemical analysis, the course includes some experiments such as: Acid-base titration, gravimetric procedures, oxidation-reduction titrations,
complexometric titration. and precipitation.
8- Organic Chemistry, CHEM 2311                        3 Credit Hours
 This course provides the students with the basic information of the physical & chemical properties, preparation, nomenclature and reaction of alkalines, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds, alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters and amines in addition to study of the stereochemistry of organic compounds.
9- Organic Chemistry (Practical), CHEM 2110        one Credit Hours
this course concentrates on the study of aromatic compounds and their reactions, aldehydes and ketons, carboxylic acids and their derivatives and different types of known organic rations, besides an introduction to spectroscopy for organic compounds.
10- soil Science, ENVT 2211                       2 Credit Hours
This course includes fundamentals of soil physics and chemistry , Soil water, Soil water Management, soil erosion, Soil Mineralogy, and Soil taxonomy.
10- soil Science lab, ENVT 2111                            1 Credit Hours
Soil Lab. includes some soil physical and chemical analyses.
11- Structural Geology, GEOL 2230             2Credit Hours
Contents of the course
- Relation of structural geology to geology
- Mechanical principles stress-Strain diagrams,and factors controlling behavior of materials.
- Description of folds (Parts of folds, nomencaluture of folds, plunge of folds, fold systems, types of folding)
-Description and classification of faults
-Description and classification of Joints, .
-Diapris and related structural features.
-Dating of structural Events.
12- Paleontology, GEOL 3221            2 Credit Hours
 This course deals with the different methods of fossil preservation and fossils classification (plants & animals), also it deals with the study of the different invertelorates phyla and related fossils besides it’s distribution along the geologic column.
12- Paleontology lab. GEOL 3121                1 Credit Hours
The practical program aims to identify the different fossils.
13- Optical Mineralogy, GEOL 3212                      2 Credit Hours
    The course deals with the optical characteristics of lenses, polarized microscope, isotropic and an isotropic material, monoaxial and biaxial crystals, & dispersion.
13- Optical Mineralogy lab. GEOL 3112                          1 Credit Hours
Laboratory includes the characters of minerals in thin sections and polarized light.
14- Stratigraphy, GEOL 3231             2 Credit Hours
This course deals with the source rocks, transportation, depositional environments, facies and facies changes, lithologic and biologic correlation, classification and nomenclature of stratigraphic units, plate tectonics and distribution of rocks, & beside a brief study of the history of Earth including the general characteristics, fossils; important events through the different geological times .
14- Stratigraphy lab. GEOL 3131                  1 Credit Hours
In laboratory the students study the sediments, analysis of the stratigraphical sections, facies maps, and representative index fossils of
different ages .
15- Petrology, GEOL 2211                 2 Credit Hours
The course includes the following topics:
- Introduction
- Igneous rock (their structures and textures, chemistry and mineralogy of Igneous Rocks, classification of Igneous rocks.
- Sedimentary rocks Their structures, Textures and composition, classification , sedimentary provenance, Processes and sedimentary Environments.
- Metamorphic Rocks (Metamorphism and Metamorphic rocks, Textures and Structures, Metamorphic conditions, Mineralogy, contact Metamorphism, & Regional metamorphism.
15- Petrology lab. GEOL 2111            1 Credit Hours
The lab includes hand specimen and thin sections of different rock types.
16- Hydrogeology, GEOL 4253          2Credit Hours
This course deals with the hydrologic cycle, Origin of groundwater, types and properties of aquifers, movement of groundwater, Darcy’s Law, types and construction of water wells, physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater, water quality, groundwater pollution, desalination of saline water, artificial recharge of groundwater, groundwater exploration.
16- Hydrogeology lab. GEOL 4153              1Credit Hours      
In the laboratory, the students study the methods of representation of the annual precipitation, measurement of infiltration ratio., porosity of rocks and sediments, darcy’s Law, collection and analysis of groundwater samples, graphic representation of the chemical results, construction and interpretation of geochemical maps.
17- Waste water Treatment, ENVT 3323                3 Credit Hours     
 This course includes introduction to waste water treatment, quality and quantity , types of waste water , environmental effects, treatment and principles of treatment process (Mechanical, Biological and chemical), enffluent reuse.
18- Waste Water (Practical), ENVT 3123      one Credit Hour  
This course includes the main physical and chemical wastewater analyses like Solids, BOD, COD, phosphorus, and Total Kejldahl Nitrogen.
19- Chemistry of Instrumental Analysis, CHENM 3311 3 Credit Hours
The goal of this subject is to provide the students with the principles of the modern instrumental methods of chemical analysis, It contains a basic introduction to properties of electromagnetic radiation, instruments for optical spectroscopy, an introduction to molecular UV-Visible and near IR absorption spectroscopy, application of molecular UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, molecular fluorescence, phosphorescence, and chemiluminescence, atomic spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy, the course also covers the fundamentals of chromatographic separation techniques, and other modern separation methods.
20- Practical Instrumental Analysis, CHEM 3111    one Credit Hour
   This practical course is designed to cover practical application of most major areas of modern instrumental analysis which is available in our department, such as UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame photometric spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatograghy, gas chromatography, and fluorescence spectroscopy.
21-Field Geology, GEOL 4241           2 Credit Hours
   What is field geology, erosion and weathering, topographic and geomorphologic features, field relationships of igneous, metamorphic, &    sedimentary rocks and the ore deposits, recognition of the geologic structures. Practical includes field studies in Palestine including survey and mapping principles.
22- Geophysics, GEOL 3261              2 Credit Hours
-Geophysics course includes the use of physical principles in geophysical methods of exploration (seismic, gravity, magnetic, electric, thermal, and radiation,
22- Geophysics lab.GEOL 3161                   1 Credit Hours
 practical applications in Oil, groundwater, and Environmental studies.
23- solid Waste Management, ENVT 2221             2Credit Hours
The solid waste management course aims at providing the students with adequate knowledge on planning designing and implementing a solid waste management system with proper understanding of the existing system in Gaza Strip.The course will include the following subjects:
1.Introduction to waste management
2.Solid waste generation, classification and characteristics
3.Collection of waste, teqniques and community involvement .
4.Storage methods and equipment
5.Transporting vehicles and transfer stations
6.Economies of waste management
7.Waste treatment.
24- Geochemistry, GEOL 3260           2 Credit Hours
Principles of geochemistry, geochemical classification of elements, geochemical cycle of rocks, geochemistry of the hydrosphere, Atmosphere and Biosphere of the earth. Geochemical exploration of petroleum.
24- Geochemistry lab. GEOL 3160               1 Credit Hours
Practice: Use of C.I.P.W. The relation between FeO/MgO and FeO, the diagrams AFM & Or- Ab- an for the chemical composition of rocks. For the geotectonic environments, the relation between SiO2 and TiO2 must be used.
25- Marine Science, ENVT 3222                  2 Credit Hours
This course explores in marine chemistry, geology physics, and biology, chemical composition of sea water, sediments (trace and major elements), ocean-atmosphere interaction, sedimentary marine environments, primary productivity. marine life, marine organisms as environmental indicators, marine pollution principals of marine and coastal management.
25- Marine Science, ENVT 3122                  1 Credit Hours
Practice: application on chemical test of sea water , biological test of fishes , geological application of sea …etc
26- Energy Resources, ENVT 4213              2 Credit Hours
In this course the nature, distribution, exploitation and limitations of global energy resources are reviewed including wind, solar, water and biogas, important geological, environmental and management processes impacting upon exploration and exploration are addressed with regard to coal, petroleum, geothermal energy resources and nuclear issues.
27- Biostatistics, BIOL 4243               2 Credit Hours
 This course includes the following topics: introduction to biostatistics, presentation of data, frequency distribution, graphic presentations, forms of distributions, measures of skewness, correlation & regression and finally Chi-square test.
28- Photogeology & Remote sensing, GEOL 4256          2 Credit Hours
 Principles of photogeology. Interpretation of aerial photographs. Use of aerial photographs in making controlled and uncontrolled mosaic.
Type of aerospace imagery and the use of them in solving environmental problems .
28- Photogeology & Remote sensing lab., GEOL 4156    1 Credit Hours
Practice: Planning of photogeological work. The interpretation of aerial photographs. The use of stereoscope in photogeology.
29- Pollution Control, ENVT 4204                2 Credit Hours
Introduction to air , water and soil pollution, technical approach to environmental pollution control, noise, radiation, and toxic chemicals, effect of pollution on the natural system balance.
30- Environmental Impact Assessment, ENVT 4205         2 Credit Hours
Principals and procedures of EIA, the nature and purposes of EIA, history and development of EIA, starting up, impact prediction, evaluation, mitigation, participation, presentation and review, monitoring, decision, case study, strategic impact assessment.
31- Geology of Palestine, ENVT 4214             2 Credit Hours
   Geology of Palestine deals with the location of Palestine (Location map) Surface geology: the coastal plain, the central mountain chain, the Jordan - Arava rift valley and the Negev; stratigraphy: major rock units, from the Precambrian to Recent . Structural geology: major folds and faults, Graben tectonic theory and Horizontal tectonic theory ; Economic geology: mineral wealth, building materials, coal, possibility of petroleum..etc.
31- Environment of Palestine, ENVT 4114             1 Credit Hours
This Course also include a brief historical, demographic and economic context, Landscape of Palestine, Biodiversity environmental recourses in Palestine, finally the and Environmental Problems in Gaza Strip.
32- Seminar, ENVT 4140                    one Credit Hours
    The aim of this course is to enable students to complete a research exercise which will include written and Oral presentation of the finding.